Categories: Cây cảnh - Bonsai Posted by Sol on 31/10/2011 10:36 SA | Bình luận (43)

Cây cảnh mang dáng vẻ cằn cỗi, già nua nhằm toát lên vẻ đẹp nghệ thuật và cả giá trị về thời gian so với tuổi thật nhờ vào một số kỹ thuật. Ngoài những cách thức cao mang tính phức tạp, có thể gọi là bí quyết thì còn những kỹ thuật đơn giản, dễ làm mà bất cứ dân chơi cây cảnh nào cũng thực hiện được.

Lột vỏ: Khi cần lão hóa, điều đầu tiên là lột vỏ. Trước hết, người thực hiện phải thật am tường đặc điểm sinh học, tập quán sinh trưởng của cây vì trong vỏ có chứa những mạch dẫn nhựa nuôi cây phát triển. Khi cắt vỏ sẽ làm đứt sự liền lạc của nó thì phần đứt đoạn ấy sẽ dần khô kiệt và chết. Trước hết, dùng phấn vẽ những chỗ cần lột, hình dung được sự dẫn truyền của nhựa, sau đó lột vỏ cây bằng dao lưỡi nhọn, cây vỏ dày thì dùng đục lưỡi tròn. Lột xong, dùng giấy nhám mài láng chỗ đã lột. Công việc này cần phải nhẹ nhàng khéo léo, chỗ lột luôn có nét mỹ thuật, mềm mại theo phong thái tự nhiên của cây và đúng kỹ thuật cây cảnh. Sau đó, dùng chanh trái hoặc vôi bôi lên chỗ đã láng nhằm mau liền sẹo với vẻ đẹp già cỗi và ngăn ngừa bệnh nấm có thể xâm nhập vào vết cắt.

Cắt ngọn: Cắt ngọn là giảm độ cao của cây và có khả năng tạo sự già nua cho cây nhất là làm vài động thái kỹ thuật như chuốt nhọn phần ngọn và xử lý như lột vỏ.


Đục thân: Nhằm tạo hang hốc, bộng lỗ cho cây. Thông thường những cây ngoài thiên nhiên khi đến tuổi nào đó thì xuất hiện những hiện tượng trên. Kỹ thuật lão hóa cây cảnh này là không tạo cấp kỳ mà phải chia làm nhiều lần cách quãng để cây đủ sức đề kháng tránh bệnh xâm nhập, phải bôi vôi kỹ nơi tạo bộng và thể loại cây phù hợp và cây có sức chịu đựng cao, mô phỏng như cây ngoài thiên nhiên (Sanh, Bồ đề, Cần thăng…)


Tạo rễ: Cây Bonsai ấn tượng tạo được nghệ thuật là những cây có gốc rễ u nần, lồi lõm, khúc khuỷu lộ ra trên mặt chậu. Cách tạo rễ góp phần làm tăng vẻ già nua cho cây. Kỹ thuật này đơn giản bằng cách thay chậu, cơi rễ. Ta đưa cây đặt ngoài khung gỗ, cắt tôn có chu vi bằng chu vi khung gỗ (hoặc chậu), đặt tôn vào khung gỗ có chiều cao theo lượng định của người chơi rồi cho đất vào, tưới nước. Sau một thời gian ta gỡ đất từng phần từ cao xuông thấp thì phần rễ sẽ dần lộ ra ngoài. Kỹ thuật giản đơn này áp dụng vào những lúc thay chậu, bón phân cho cây rất phù hợp và cần chú ý bố cục bộ rễ sao cho phơi bày ra ngoài hợp lý.


Tạo sẹo: Cây sống ngoài thiên nhiên lâu năm thường bị tổn thương do mưa, gió, bệnh tật. Những dấu vết thường thấy là các vết sẹo trên thân khiến nó trở thành nét đặc thù về vẻ đẹp của cây. Trong Bonsai, tạo sẹo là kỹ thuật tạo sự già lão như vẻ lâu năm. Những vị trí tạo sẹo là chỗ tiếp giáp giữa thân và cành, chỗ trống trải như đoạn phình của bụng cây. Ta dùng phấn, than vẽ phác thảo dáng sẹo cần tạo. Hình dáng sẹo rất nhiều kiểu, nhưng đa số làm theo hình elip, hình tròn ôm theo đường lượn của thân cây. Kỹ thuật này thường sử dụng cho dân lâu năm trong nghề có kinh nghiệm bởi không khéo sẽ làm cho vết sẹo thô vụng, người xem sẽ rất khó chịu và tác phẩm mất giá trị. Dụng cụ tạo sẹo thường là các loại đục nhỏ có hình máng, có rãnh, lúc tạo sẹo cần thao tác vết lõm sâu dần vào tâm. Có một số cây không cần tạo sẹo khi thân nó đã già lão và có những loại cây thân quá cứng, quá mềm, thớ gỗ dài dễ bị nguồn bệnh thâm nhập hoặc cả những cây còn non thân chưa đủ lớn…

Nguồn: ST

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